Tuesday, August 9, 2011
UN mission in the Ivory Coast and elections - S/RES/2000 (2011)
S/RES/2000 mainly addresses questions surrounding the UN mission in the Ivory Coast (UNOCI) related to efforts for the construction of stable peace process and the upcoming legislative elections. There is an extension of the mandate, as well as multiple calls for the mission to take the specifics of minorities groups, such as children and women on the ground. The mandate of the mission is revamped and includes elements such as the protection of UN personnel and electoral assistance.
The resolution starts by recalling its previous resolutions on the issue and on the collaboration with the mission in Liberia, for that they point to the principle of good-neighborliness and their strong commitment to the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and unity of the country. They still welcome the report of the Secretary-General on the country and it also welcomes the progress towards restoring stability and peace in the region and it further commends the Ivorian President’s commitment and initiatives to promote dialogue, justice and reconciliation. Furthermore, it takes note of the President’s request that the facilitator continue to assist the government in implementing unfinished aspect of the peace process and also takes note of the requested authorization to open investigation on the International Criminal Court of war crimes that took place in the country.
The resolution continues by expressing its concern with continuing precarious and volatile security situation and taking note of the establishment of the Republican Forces of the Ivory Coast in March, while stressing the need for security sector reform. The resolution also takes note of the high risk of relapse into renewed armed conflict and attacks against civilians and emphasizes the importance of holding credible, free and fair legislative elections as critical for the full restoration of the constitutional order in the Ivory Coast and for that they stress the importance of inclusive participation of the civil society. The document still condemns the atrocities, serious human rights abuses and violations and the attacks and harassment against UN personnel and further the importance to investigate alleged human rights abuses.
The resolution still takes note of the report and recommendations made by Human Rights Council. It further commends the efforts during the post-elections crisis and the troop and police contributing countries to the UN mission in the Ivory Coast. The document further recalls resolutions related to women, children and civilians protection in the scenarios of conflict. The document also determines that the situation of the country still poses a threat to international peace and security and for that the resolution acts under Chapter VII of the Charter.
The resolution decides to extend the mandate of the mission under July 31, 2012 and decides that the authorized strength should remain at the 9,792 number, including troops and staff officers and military observers. It also decides that the police component does not need to be increased, but authorizes the increase of individual police personnel by 205 advisers and decides that additional troops authorized beforehand were necessary for the stabilization of the country. It also reiterates that all stages of the upcoming legislative elections shall be observed by the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to guarantee open, free, fair and transparent elections.
The resolution moves then to discuss the mandate that is divided in multiple sections, initially it starts discussing the protection of civilians and for that it points out that they ought to protect the civilian population from imminent threat of physical violence, to revise the comprehensive strategy for the protection of civilians, work closely with humanitarian agencies, bring those to the attention of the authorities and to monitor and report violations and abuses against vulnerable populations. Afterwards it moves to discuss addressing remaining security threats and border-related challenges and for that they call to continue support the national authorities in stabilizing the security situation, monitoring and deterring activities of militias, mercenaries and other illegal armed groups, support the government in cross-border issues, assist in promoting mutual trust and support the holding of upcoming elections.
The mandate moves on to discuss the monitoring of the arms embargo that exist in the country, in that respect UNOCI ought to monitor the implementation of the measures imposed and to collect arms and related materiel that are brought within state lines in violation of the embargo. Related to collection, the UNOCI’s mandate stipulates that they ought to continue to assist the national authorities, support the government in implementing the programs and coordinate to ensure that collected weapons are not disseminated or re-utilized. The mandate moves on to discuss disarmament, demobilization and reintegration program, in which the UN mission ought to assist the government in developing a new national program, continue to support the registration and screening of former combatants and to support the disarmament and repatriation of foreign armed elements.
The mandate then goes to discuss the constitution and reform of security and rule of law institutions, for that they ought to assist the government in a sector-wide review of security institutions, to support effective coordination, advise them on security sector reform and the organization of the future National Army, support the development and implementation of a national justice sector strategy and to support the establishment of mechanisms to prevent social conflict and foster social cohesion. The mandate also encompasses the elements for protection and promotion of human rights, in which the mission puts forward that it ought to contribute to the promotion and protection of human rights, to monitor, help investigate human rights and humanitarian law violations, bring to attention all individuals identified as perpetrators of human rights violations and to support the efforts related to gender-based violence. The last item on the mandate regarding the protection of civilians is the support for humanitarian assistance and in that sense it should facilitate unhindered humanitarian access and to support the Ivorian authorities in that regard.
The mandate moves to discuss peace and electoral process, in the first item, it discusses the support for elections in that sense it ought to promote inclusive political process, support the organization and conduction of open, free, fair and transparent elections, provide technical and logistical support to the Independent Electoral Commission, undertake the coordination of international observers and to provide necessary assistance to certify the elections. The mandate then discusses public information, putting forward it ought to closely monitor Ivorian media, to use UNOCI’s broadcasting capacity to help create a peaceful environment, encourage Ivorian mass media to fully implement the Code of Good Conduct and to monitor any public incidents of incitement to hatred, intolerance and violence. The mandate moves to discuss the redeployment of State administration, pointing out that the mission should support the Ivorian authorities to extend and re-establish effective State administration. Under the title of facilitation, the mission should coordinate with the facilitator to implement outstanding tasks of the peace process. The last element of the mandate is the protection of UN personnel, which ought to be protected by the mission.
The resolution decides to continue its authorization to UNOCI to use all necessary means to carry out its mandate and welcomes the establishment of the Dialogue, Truth and Reconciliation Commission to provide assistance in the peace stabilization process. The resolution then moves to calling upon the government to take the necessary steps to re-establish and reinforce relevant institutions and to ensure the conditions of protection and detention of former President Gbagbo, their family and related individuals. The document also calls upon the UNOCI to support national and international efforts to bring to justice perpetrators of human rights violations and urges all parties to cooperate fully with the operations of the mission. There is also a call upon the UN Country Team to contribute to the planning and the implementation of microprojects.
The resolution encourages regional organizations to develop a subregional strategy to address the threat of the cross-border movements of armed groups and to comply with the provisions of S/RES/1980 (2011). The document moves then to decide the extend until July 31, 2012 the authorization that the UNSC provided to the French Forces to support UNOCI. It also requests the Secretary-General to provide a midterm report no later than December 31, 2011 and a final report by June 30, 2012. It also requests the Secretary-General to take into account the legislative elections when writing the midterm report. The resolution also decides to remain seized of the matter.